Antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of nutmeg against foodborne disease pathogens

Eka Astuty, Eka Sukmawaty


Foodborne disease is a disease that occurs as a result of food contamination by microbes or harmful chemicals. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)  is widely used as a spice and flavor enhancer for food and beverages. In addition, it has traditionally been used to treat diarrhea and kidney disease. Several pharmacological studies have reported the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory activity of this plant. Antibacterial effectiveness test of nutmeg against several pathogens in this study was carried out using the disc diffusion method. The results of this study indicated that the ethanol extract of flesh of fruit (concentration of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) had antibacterial activity against all tested pathogenic bacteria. Different results were shown by the ethanol extract of seed and mace. All the ethanol extract concentrations of seed were not able to inhibit the growth of Shigella sp. and Clostridium sp., while the ethanol extract of mace in all concentrations was unable to inhibit the growth of Shigella sp. Various factors may affecting this extract and compound activity when used in complex biological systems such as in vivo and human studies. Future studies must also focus on aspects of pharmacokinetics and toxicological plant extracts and phytochemicals.

Full Text:



Ali, M. A., Hamiduddin, Zaigham, M., & Ikram, M. (2018). Phyto-pharmacological potential of Jaiphal (Myristica fragrans Houtt): A spice of medicinal importance and its utilization in Unani Medicine. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 12(1), S26–S36. Retrieved from

Anibijuwon, I. I., & Omojasola, P. F. (2013). Antibacterial activity of myristica fragrans and curry powder against selected organisms. Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 28(1), 103–111. Retrieved from

Benmeziane, F., Djermoune-Arkoub, L., Adamou Hassan, K., & Zeghad, H. (2018). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of aqueous extract and essential oil from garlic against some pathogenic bacteria. International Food Research Journal, 25(2), 561–564. Retrieved from

Gupta, A. D., Bansal, V. K., Babu, V., & Maithil, N. (2013). Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt). Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 11(1), 25–31. Retrieved from

Ibrahim, K. M., Naem, R. K., & Abd-Sahib, A. S. (2013). Antibacterial activity of nutmeg (myristica fragrans) seed extracts against some pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Al-Nahrain University Science, 16(2), 188–192. Retrieved from

Izah, S. C., Zige, D. V, Alagoa, K. J., Uhunmwangho, E., & Iyamu, A. (2018). Antibacterial Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Myristica fragrans (Common Nutmeg). Ec Pharmacology And Toxicology Research Article, 4, 291–295. Retrieved from

Kassem, A. Z. E. (2018). Cost of Foodborne Illnesses: A literature Review. In Food Safety Science, Health and Behaviour (pp. 1–10). Egypt: International Conference of Egyptian Society of Food Safety. Retrieved from

Kiarsi, Z., Hojjati, M., Behbahani, B. A., & Noshad, M. (2020). In vitro antimicrobial effects of Myristica fragrans essential oil on foodborne pathogens and its influence on beef quality during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Safety, 40(3). Retrieved from

Lal, M., Chandraker, S. K., & Shukla, R. (2020). Antimicrobial properties of selected plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Functional and Preservative Properties of Phytochemicals. Elsevier Inc. Retrieved from

Lewis, K., & Ausubel, F. M. Prospects for plant-derived antibacterials, 24 Nature Biotechnology § (2006). Retrieved from

Nadiya, A. N., & Asharina, I. (2016). Beberapa mikroba patogenik penyebab foodborne disease dan upaya untuk menurunkan prevalensi foodborne disease di indonesia. Institut Teknologi Bandung. Retrieved from

Nurhasanah, N. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of nutmeg (myristica fragrans houtt) fruit methanol extract againts growth staphylococus aureus and escherichia coli. Jurnal Bioedukasi, 3(1), 2301–4678. Retrieved from

Nurjanah, S., Putri, I. L., & Sugiarti, D. P. (2018). Antibacterial activity of nutmeg oil. In 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security: A Comprehensive Approach (Vol. 2, pp. 563–569). KnE Life Sciences. Retrieved from

Rahadian, D. D. (2009). Pengaruh ekstrak biji pala (myristica fragrans houtt) dosis 7,5 mg/25grbb terhadap waktu induksi tidur dan lama waktu tidur mencit bal b/c yang diinduksi thiopental. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro. Retrieved from

Shafiei, Z., Shuhairi, N. N., Md Fazly Shah Yap, N., Harry Sibungkil, C. A., & Latip, J. (2012). Antibacterial activity of Myristica fragrans against oral pathogens. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012. Retrieved from

Shan, B., Cai, Y. Z., Brooks, J. D., & Corke, H. (2007). The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 117(1), 112–119. Retrieved from

Shonhiwa, A. M., Ntshoe, G., Essel, V., Thomas, J., & Mccarthy, K. (2017). A review of foodborne disease outbreaks (Vol. 16). Retrieved from

Simamora, A., Santoso, A. W., & Timotius, K. H. (2018). Bioactivities of methanol and ethyl acetate mace extracts of myristica fragrans houtt. Pharmacognosy Communications, 8(3), 103–107. Retrieved from

WHO. (2015). Food-borne disease burden epidemiology reference group. World Health Organization. Retrieved from

Zhang, D., Gan, R. Y., Farha, A. K., Kim, G., Yang, Q. Q., Shi, X. M., & Corke, H. (2019). Discovery of antibacterial dietary spices that target antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Microorganisms, 7(6). Retrieved from


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 77 times
PDF - 47 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.